Overview[ edit ] Economic systems is the category in the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes that includes the study of such systems. One field that cuts across them is comparative economic systemswhich include the following subcategories of different systems:
The evolution of the mixed farming system As rural population pressure increases, both crop and livestock farmers need to intensify production. Traditional soil protection techniques, in particular the long fallow periods which protected against erosion and allowed soil nutrients to recharge, are no longer possible Kjekshus, If farmers cannot resort to external inputs, the integration of Mixed economic systems and crop activities represents their main opportunity for intensification.
Mixed farming has therefore become the basis for modern agriculture. Mixed farming systems provide farmers with an opportunity to diversify risk from single crop production, to use labour more efficiently, to have a source of cash for purchasing farm inputs and to add value to crops or crop by-products.
Combining crops and livestock also has the potential to maintain ecosystem function and health and help prevent agricultural systems from becoming too brittle, or over connected, by promoting greater biodiversity, and therefore increased capability to absorb shocks to the natural resource base Holling, Environmentally, mixed farming systems: When they are not used as feed, stalks may be incorporated directly into the soil, where, for some time, they act as a nitrogen trap, exacerbating deficiencies.
In the tropical semi-arid areas, termite action results in loss of nutrients before the next cropping season. Under different sets of pressures and opportunities, several developments are possible, depending on resource endowment and market access.
Initially, and if market opportunities open up, the symbiosis between crops and livestock can intensify Christiaensen et al. A comparative analysis of cassava-livestock interactions in six countries, covering seven regions in sub-Saharan Africa, clearly shows that as population intensity increases, crop-livestock interactions intensify as organic fertilizer and the use of cassava as a livestock feed gain importance.
For example, in the densely populated areas of Nigeria, between 77 and percent of the animals were fed farm-grown cassava, whereas in the sparsely populated areas of Zaire and Tanzania, this varied between 8 and 50 percent. Livestock thus help to conserve a better nutrient balance within the system, and reduce the threat of nutrient loss.
If pressure increases further, crop-livestock systems can separate into specialized crop or livestock activities.
If there are no improved market opportunities, which is the case in many developing countries, and as human population pressures continue, the arable land part of the system will experience increased rates of nutrient depletion and therefore flora and fauna biodiversity loss and soil erosion.
This can, in turn, lead to a downward spiral of mono-culture with lower quality food crops, increased under-nutrition and famine Cleaver and Schreiber, However, if urban incomes rise, more market opportunities open up and farmers become more integrated into the market economy, allowing them to specialize, take advantage of economies of scale and develop greater levels of expertise.
Finally, under very strong demand, and often encouraged by input or price subsidies such as exist in many developed countries and in the fast growing economies of East Asia, excessive importation of nutrients can lead to soil and water tables being overloaded with nitrogen or phosphorus.
The case study on Brittany in France illustrates this condition Box 3. The challenge for the mixed farm sector will therefore be to maintain a nutrient and energy equilibrium through crop-livestock integration and at the same time allow sustainable productivity growth. The mixed farming system, more than any other production system, operates under a wide range of environmental and economic conditions and requires regional solutions and practices.The purpose of this qualification is to allow Junior Personnel and elected candidates to progress towards a position of farm laboures (operators) with specific reference to Mixed Farming systems.
Who should be recruited to fill the two to three million K teaching positions projected to come open during the next decade? What kinds of knowledge and training should these new recruits have?
These are the questions confronting policymakers as a generation of teachers retires at the same time. Market research report on the Mixed Retailers industry, with Mixed Retailers industry trends, analysis, and market share.
United States is said to be having a mixed economy. But however It does have some characteristics of a free market economy.
if u placed it in a economic system line showing command economy on one. A farm economic analysis in different dairy production systems in Bangladesh M M Uddin, M N Sultana*, O A Ndambi*, T Hemme* and K J Peters Department of Animal Breeding in the Tropics and Sub-tropics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
Mixed economy. Some private businesses, driven by profit. Some controlled by government; Private: mobiles, cars, computers; Essential services: police, fire service.